The group of Prof. Christian Stockmann published successfully their work on the role of the transcription factor HIF-1α in defining the phenotype of gut innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Those cells of the innate immune system show a surprisingly high diversity and are crucial for gut homeostasis. In their studies, Krzywinska E., Sobecki M., et al. could demonstrate the crucial role of HIF-1α in ILC function, lipid metabolism, and gut defense. Their experimental results hints to new therapeutic targets in inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic disorders.